“The beginning of modern science can be dated from the time when such general questions as, “How was the universe created? What is matter made of? What is the essence of life?” were replaced by such limited questions as “How does a stone fall? How does water flow in a tube? How does blood circulate in vessels?” This substitution had an amazing result. While asking general questions led to limited answers, asking limited questions turned out to provide more and more general answers.”

— Francois Jacob


Inference is the extraction of new information from information already available. While reasoning is the process of pursuing this goal by attending to reasons. Humans, cannot spend a minute of their waking life without making inferences. On the other hand, they can spend hours or even days without ever engaging in reasoning.”

– Hugo Mercier & Dan Sperber 

“Constant flux means more than simply things will be different. It means processes – the engines of flux – are now more important than products. Once we invented the scientific method, we could immediately create thousands of other amazing things. Get the ongoing process right and it will keep generating ongoing benefits. In our new era, processes trump products.”

– Kevin Kelly